Kong X et al. (2018) Mapping cortical brain asymmetry in 17,141 healthy individuals worldwide via the ENIGMA consortium. PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718418115

Norman L, Carlisi C, Christakou A, Murphy C, Chantiluke K, Giampietro V, Simmons A, Brammer M, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K (2018) Fronto-striatal dysfunction during decision-making in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, DOI: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.03.009

Bell T, Langdon A, Lindner M, Lloyd W, Christakou A (2018) Thalamostriatal interactions in human reversal learning. bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/246371

Bell T, Lindner M, Mullins P, Christakou A (2018) Functional neurochemical imaging of the human striatal cholinergic system during reversal learning. European Journal of Neuroscience, 47:1184-1193 DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13803

O’Connell G, Hsu C-T, Christakou A, Chakrabarti B (2017) Thinking about others and the future: Neural correlates of perspective taking relate to preferences for delayed rewards. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, DOI: 10.3758/s13415-017-0550-8

Kong X-Z et al. (2017) Mapping Cortical Brain Asymmetry in 17,141 Healthy Individuals Worldwide via the ENIGMA Consortium. bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/196634

Carlisi CO, Norman L, Murphy CM, Christakou A, Chantiluke K, Giampietro V, Simmons A, Brammer M, Murphy DG, MRC AIMS consortium, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K (2017) Shared and disorder-specific neurocomputational mechanisms of decision-making in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Cerebral Cortex, DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhx265

Norman L, Carlisi C, Christakou A, Chantiluke K, Murphy C, Simmons A, Giampietro V, Brammer M, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K (2017) Neural dysfunction during temporal discounting in paediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 269:97-105

Murphy C, Christakou A, Giampietro V, Brammer M, Daly E, Ecker C, Johnston P, Spain D, Robertson D, MRC AIMS Consortium, Murphy D, Rubia K (2017) Abnormal functional activation and maturation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex and cerebellum during temporal discounting in autism spectrum disorder. Human Brain Mapping

Norman LJ, Carlisi CO, Christakou A, Cubillo A, Murphy CM, Chantiluke K, Simmons A, Giampietro V, Brammer M, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K (2017) Shared and disorder-specific task-positive and default mode network dysfunctions during sustained attention in paediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obsessive/compulsive disorder. NeuroImage: Clinical

Carlisi CO, Norman L, Murphy CM, Christakou A, Chantiluke K, Giampietro V, Simmons A, Brammer M, Murphy DG, MRC AIMS consortium, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K (2017) Comparison of neural substrates of temporal discounting between youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Psychological Medicine

Lindner M, Bell T, Iqbal S, Mullins P, Christakou A (2017) In vivo functional neurochemistry of human cortical cholinergic function during visuospatial attention. PLOS One, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0171338

Carlisi CO, Norman L, Murphy CM, Christakou A, Chantiluke K, Giampietro V, Simmons A, Brammer M, Murphy DG, MRC AIMS Consortium, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K (2017) Disorder-specific and shared brain abnormalities during vigilance in autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 10.1016/j.bpsc.2016.12.005

Morriss J, Christakou A, van Reekum C (2016) Nothing is safe: Intolerance of uncertainty is associated with compromised fear extinction learning. Biological Psychology, DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.05.001

Carlisi CO, Chantiluke K, Norman L, Christakou A, Barrett N, Giampietro V, Brammer M, Simmons A, Rubia K (2016) The effects of acute fluoxetine administration on temporal discounting in youth with ADHD. Psychological Medicine, 46 (6). pp. 1197-1209. DOI:10.1017/S0033291715002731

Morriss J, Christakou A, van Reekum C (2015) Intolerance of uncertainty predicts fear extinction in amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortical circuitry. Biology of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, 5(4) DOI:10.1186/s13587-015-0019-8

O'Connell G, Christakou A, Chakrabarti B (2015) The role of simulation in intertemporal choices. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9 DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00094

Christakou A (2014) Present Simple and Continuous: emergence of self-regulation and contextual sophistication in adolescent decision-making. Neuropsychologia, 65:302-312.

Murphy CM, Christakou A, Daly EM, Ecker C, Giampietro V, Brammer M, Smith AB, Johnston P, Robertson DM, MRC AIMS Consortium, Murphy DG, Rubia K (2014) Abnormal functional activation and maturation of fronto-striato-temporal and cerebellar regions during sustained attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(10):1107-1116.

Chantiluke K, Christakou A, Murphy CM, Giampietro V, Daly EM, Brammer M, the AIMS Consortium, Murphy DG, Rubia K (2014) Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during temporal discounting in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism and comorbid ADHD and Autism. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 223(2):113-120.

Christakou A, Gershman SJ, Niv Y, Simmons A, Brammer M, Rubia K (2013) Neural and psychological maturation of decision-making in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25(11):1807-1823.

O'Connell G, Christakou A, Haffey AT, Chakrabarti B (2013) The role of empathy in choosing rewards from another's perspective. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7:174 DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00174

Christakou A, Murphy CM, Chantiluke K, Cubillo AI, Smith AB, Giampietro V, Daly E, Ecker C, Robertson D, the MRC AIMS consortium, Murphy DG, Rubia K (2013) Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with Autism. Molecular Psychiatry, 18:236-244.

Christakou A, Brammer M, Rubia K (2011) Maturation of limbic corticostriatal activation and connectivity associated with developmental changes in temporal discounting. Neuroimage, 54:1344-1354.

Christakou A, Brammer M, Giampietro V, Rubia K (2009) Right ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices mediate adaptive decisions under ambiguity by integrating choice utility and outcome evaluation. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(35):11020-11028.

Christakou A, Halari R, Smith AB, Ifkovits E, Brammer M, Rubia K (2009) Sex-dependent age modulation of frontostriatal and temporo-parietal activation during cognitive control. Neuroimage, 48(1):223-236.

Rubia A, Halari R, Christakou A, Taylor E (2009) Impulsiveness as a timing disturbance: neurocognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder during temporal processes and normalization with methylphenidate. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 364(1525):1919-31.
(Commentary in New Scientist)

Baunez C, Christakou A, Chudasama Y, Forni C, Robbins TW (2007) Bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on attentional performance: transient deleterious effects and enhanced motivation in both intact and parkinsonian rats. European Journal of Neuroscience, 25(4):1187-94.

Haggard P, Christakou A, Serino A (2007) Viewing the body modulates tactile receptive fields. Experimental Brain Research, 180(1):187-93.

Christakou A, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2005) Prolonged neglect following unilateral disruption of a prefrontal cortical-dorsal striatal system. European Journal of Neuroscience, 21(3):782-92.

Christakou A, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2004) Prefrontal cortical-ventral striatal interactions involved in affective modulation of attentional performance: implications for corticostriatal circuit function. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(4):773-80.

Christakou A, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2001) Functional disconnection of medial prefrontal cortex and medial caudate-putamen: Effects on performance of a visual attention task in the rat. Brain & Cognition, 47(1-2):35-37.

Christakou A, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2001) Functional disconnection of a prefrontal cortical-dorsal striatal system disrupts choice reaction time performance: implications for attentional function. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115(4):812-25.


[ i n v i t e d   t a l k s ]

"Multimodal neuroimaging of flexible decision-making at experiential and developmental timescales"
Sixth International Symposium on Biology of Decision Making (SBDM), Paris, May 2016

"Structural and neurochemical imaging of the human striatal cholinergic system" 
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST), April 2016

"Flexible decision-making; cortico-subcortical contributions in typical and atypical development"
School of Psychology, University of Bangor, March 2016

"The selfish prism: the human brain constructs pluralistic and utilitarian versions of the world"
Summer seminar series on Representation and Nature
Centre for Cognition Research, University of Reading, May 2015

"Value across time and context in the maturing human brain"
Neuroeconomics Seminar
Laboratory for Social and Neural Systems Research, University of Zurich, November 2014

"Ask not what you can do for reinforcement learning, but what reinforcement learning can do for you"
Brain Embodiment Lab (BEL), School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, May 2014

"Wanting to stop; a natural history of the adolescent development of foresight"
Intentional Inhibition: from motor suppression to self-control
International expert workshop, supported by the European Science Foundation, UCL, September 2013

"Maturation of reward-driven decision-making in typical and atypical adolescent development"
CogDev 2013 - joint meeting, Cognitive & Developmental Sections of the British Psychological Society
University of Reading, September 2013

"Development of reward-driven decision-making in typical and atypical adolescence"
Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, March 2013

"The brain basis of self-inflicted and socially engineered biases in human decision making"
Annual Conference of the Association for Science Education (ASE), January 2013

"The CINN Brain Bank; project update"
A stakeholder research update and feedback event hosted by the John Madejski Centre for Reputation and the CINN
Henley Business School, July 2012

"Adolescent maturation of reward-driven decision-making in frontostriatal circuits"
Reading Emotions 2012 - Neural Interactions and Affect: Basic and Clinical Perspectives
University of Reading, April 2012

"Development of reward-driven decision-making; typical and atypical adolescence and transition to adulthood"
Emotion and Decision-making Group, Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, UCL, March 2011

"The science of decision-making"
Brain-based Business; Helping Leaders Make Better Decisions: an event supported by the EPSRC "Bridging the Gaps" award for Cognitive Systems. Hosted by the John Madejski Centre for Reputation, CINN, and the Henley Partnership
Henley Business School, November 2010

"Neuroimaging of decision making and temporal discounting in ADHD"
European Network on Hyperkinetic Disorders (EUNETHYDIS) 19th Annual Conference, Mannheim, Germany, October 2008

"Neuroimaging of outcome evaluation during decision making in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder"
OCD & Related Disorders Clinic, Michael Rutter Centre for Young People, South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, October 2008

"Neuroimaging of outcome evaluation in decision-making contexts"
Neuroimaging Interest Group, Institute of Psychiatry, November 2007

"Cortico‑striatal circuits in cognitive processing"
Cambridge Neuroscience Seminar
Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, November 2001


[ n e w s   &   c o m m e n t a r y ]

Could the eyes have it? British Science Association blog (2015), reporting from the British Science Festival

The adventures of Stan the mannequin. British Science Association blog (2015), reporting from the British Science Festival

People-powered online hunt for fossil hotspots. British Science Association online news (2015), reporting from the British Science Festival

Greek bailout set to free up research funds. Nature (2015) 524(7565):273, doi:10.1038/524273a (by Abbott A, Christakou A additional reporting)

Four-legged snake fossil sparks legal investigation. Nature (2015) doi:10.1038/nature.2015.18116

Research Highlights: How boa constrictors really kill. Nature (2015) 523(7562):504, doi:10.1038/523504a

Four-legged fossil snake is a world first. Nature (2015) doi:10.1038/nature.2015.18050

Research Highlights: Hands hold clues to primate evolution. Nature (2015) 523(7561):385, doi:10.1038/523385b

Predicting the unpredictable. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2001) 5(12):510-511. 

Nothing to be afraid of? Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2001) 5(6):231.

Familiarity breeds order. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2001) 5(1):5.

Focusing attention in the parietal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2000) 4(6):213.

Not just a motor (inter)face. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2000) 4(3):79.


[ c o n f e r e n c e   p r o c e e d i n g s   a n d   p r e s e n t a t i o n s ]

Bell T, Langdon A, Lindner M, Christakou A (2018) Cortical and thalamic influences on striatal involvement in human behavioural flexibility. Federation of European Neuroscience Societies, July 2018, Berlin, Germany

Bell T, Langdon A, Lindner M, Christakou A (2018) Cortical and thalamic influences on striatal involvement in human behavioural flexibility. Human Brain Mapping, June 2018, Singapore

Fastrich GM, Suzuki S, Christakou A, Murayama K, (2018) Challenge preference: behavioural demonstration and a computational model. Symposium on Biology of Decision-making (SBDM), May 2018, Paris, France

Bell T, Langdon A, Lindner M, Christakou A (2018) Cortical and thalamic influences on striatal involvement in human behavioural flexibility. Symposium on Biology of Decision-making (SBDM), May 2018, Paris, France

Lindner M, Malik A, Scrivener C, Roesch EB, Christakou A, Saddy D (2017) Detecting the temporal characteristics of dynamical interactions. Human Brain Mapping, July 2017, Vancouver, Canada

Lloyd W, Bell T, Christakou A (2016) Functional and structural connectivity between dopaminergic midbrain and striatum changes over probabilistic learning. Human Brain Mapping, June 2016, Geneva, Switzerland

Lloyd W, Bell T, Christakou A (2016) Functional connectivity between dopaminergic midbrain and striatum changes over probabilistic learning. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, April 2016, New York, USA

Bower J, Christakou A, Steel C (2015) Trait mood impacts regulation of positive affect in healthy volunteers. British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies, July 2015, Warwick, UK

Bower J, Christakou A, Steel C (2015) Development and validation of the State/Trait Emotion Regulation Questionnaires (STERQ). British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies, July 2015, Warwick, UK

Varjacic A, Johnstone T, Saddy D, Christakou A (2014) Social congruence influences the evaluation of decision outcomes via the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula and anterior cingulate. Society for Neuroscience, November 2014, Washington, USA

Martin EM, Christakou A, Ellis JA, van Reekum C (2014) Age differences in decision making driven not by risk but by ambiguity. Human Brain Mapping, June 2014, Hamburg, Germany

Varjacic A, Lindner M, Johnstone T, Saddy D, Christakou A (2013) Social congruence influences the evaluation of decision outcomes via the prefrontal cortex, insula and anterior cingulate. 3rd Symposium on Biology of Decision Making (SBDM), May 2013, Paris, France

Varjacic A, Johnstone T, Saddy D, Christakou A (2013) Ventromedial prefrontal cortex mediates the effects of social influence on the utilisation of rewards and punishments. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, April 2013, San Francisco, USA

Martin E, Christakou A, Ellis JA, van Reekum C (2013) Ambiguity demands increased cognitive control: Engagement of lateral prefrontal cortex under decisions of maximal uncertainty. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, April 2013, San Francisco, USA

Varjacic A, Christakou A, Chakrabarti, B, Ellis J, Hillenbrand C, Johnstone J, Money K, van Reekum C, Saddy D (2012) Social influence on the utilization of reward and punishment in the brains of business leaders. Federation of European Neuroscience Societies, July 2012, Barcelona, Spain

Work published since presentation:

Bell T, Lindner M, Langdon A, Christakou A (2017) The role of thalamostriatal connectivity in human behavioural flexibility. European Brain and Behaviour Society (EBBS), September 2017, Bilbao, Spain

Bell T, Lindner M, Langdon A, Zheng Y, Christakou A (2017) The role of thalamo-striatal interactions in human behavioural flexibility. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, March 2017, San Fransisco, USA

Bell T, Lindner M, Langdon A, Zheng Y, Christakou A (2016) Neural and psychological individual differences in multi-alternative probabilistic reinforcement learning. Human Brain Mapping, June 2016, Geneva, Switzerland

Bell T, Lindner M, Lloyd W, Langdon A, Mullins PG, Morris G, Niv Y, Wickens J, Christakou A (2016) Functional, structural and neurochemical imaging of the human cholinergic system. Human Frontiers Science Program (HFSP) alumni scientific meeting, Royal Society, June 2016, London, UK

Bell T, Lindner M, Langdon A, Zheng Y, Christakou A (2016) Neural and psychological individual differences in probabilistic reinforcement learning. Cognitive Neuroscience Society, April 2016, New York, USA

Bell T, Lindner M, Zheng Y, Christakou A (2015) In vivo cholinergic neurochemistry of the human striatum and its relationship to learning. Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS) Featured Regional Meeting, October 2015, Thessaloniki, Greece

Reed T, Lindner M, Zheng Y, Christakou A (2015) In vivo cholinergic neurochemistry of the human striatum and its relationship to learning. 5th International Symposium on Biology of Decision-making (SBDM), May 2015, Paris, France

Lindner M, Iqbal S, Mullins PG, Christakou A (2014) Choline levels in human parietal cortex predict performance in a visuospatial attention task. Society for Neuroscience, November 2014, Washington, USA 

Morriss J, Christakou A, van Reekum C (2014) Nothing's safe: Intolerance of uncertainty predicts delayed extinction learning. Human Brain Mapping, June 2014, Hamburg, Germany

O’Connell G, Christakou A, Chakrabarti B (2012) Putting a Price on Friendship: How Temporal Discounting for Others Links Reward and Empathy. Consortium of European Research on Emotion (CERE), May 2012, Canterbury, UK

Murphy CM, Christakou A, Daly E, Ecker C, Johnston P, Smith A, Giampetro V, Brammer MJ, Robertson DM, Spain D, MRC Aims, Murphy DG, Rubia K (2012) Functional Brain Maturation of Attention and Temporal Discounting in Children and Adults with ASD: An fMRI Investigation. 11th International Meeting for Autism Research, May 2012, Toronto, Canada

Murphy CM, Christakou A, Chantiluke K, Smith A, Cubillo A, Daly E, Giampetro V, Ecker C, Murphy DG, MRC AIMS Consortium, Rubia K (2011) Sustained Attention In Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An fMRI Investigation. 10th International Meeting for Autism Research, May 2011, San Diego, USA

Christakou A, Gershman S, Niv Y, Brammer M, Rubia K (2010) Temporal difference modelling of decision-making under ambiguity; application in adolescent development. Motivational and Cognitive Control Meeting, June 2010, Oxford, UK

Christakou A, Murphy C, Chantiluke K, Smith A, Cubillo A, Murphy D, Rubia K (2010) Disorder-specific dysfunctions during vigilance in children with ADHD and children with ASD. European Network on Hyperkinetic Disorders (EUNETHYDIS) 21st Annual Conference, May 2010, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Christakou A, Brammer M, Rubia K (2010) Maturation of limbic corticostriatal activation and connectivity associated with developmental changes in temporal discounting. 17th Annual Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS) Meeting, April 2010, Montreal, Canada

Christakou A, Brammer M, Rubia K (2010) Maturation of limbic corticostriatal activation and connectivity associated with developmental changes in temporal discounting. “The Frontal Lobes”, 20th Annual Rotman Research Institute Conference, March 2010, Toronto, Canada

Christakou A, Brammer M, Rubia K (2009) Maturation of limbic corticostriatal activation and connectivity associated with developmental changes in temporal discounting. British Association for Cognitive Neuroscience Annual Meeting, September 2009, London, UK

Murphy C, Christakou A, Daly E, Johnston P, Spain D, Murphy D, Rubia K, MRC AIMS Consortium (2009) fMRI investigation of sustained attention and sensorimotor synchronization in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder. 8th Annual International Meeting for Autism Research, International Society for Autism Research, May 2009, Chicago, USA

Murphy CM, Christakou A, Murphy DGM, Rubia K (2008) fMRI investigation of decision making, temporal foresight & reward evaluation in Asperger’s syndrome. 7th Annual International Meeting for Autism Research, International Society for Autism Research, May 2008, London, UK

Christakou A, Brammer MJ, Rubia K (2007) Neural correlates of temporal discounting and reward‑related decision‑making. “What do we want to see in brain imaging?”, New York Academy of Sciences and The Royal Institution of Great Britain, December 2007, London, UK

Christakou A, Brammer MJ, Rubia K (2007) Functional neuroimaging of temporal discounting, decision-making and reward evaluation. Human Brain Mapping, June 2007, Chicago, USA (NeuroImage 36: s106)

Christakou A, Brammer MJ, Rubia K (2007) Functional neuroimaging of sustained attention for temporally unpredictable targets. Human Brain Mapping, June 2007, Chicago, USA (NeuroImage 36: s82)

Christakou A, Halari R, Smith AB, Ifkovits E, Brammer MJ, Rubia K (2007) Functional neuroimaging of age and gender effects on the development of cognitive control processes. Human Brain Mapping, June 2007, Chicago, USA (NeuroImage 36: s70)

Christakou A, & Rubia K (2006) Functional neuroimaging of temporal discounting and reward evaluation. Translational Neuroscience Symposium (invited participant), ROCHE & Nature Medicine, September 2006, Palo Alto, USA

Baunez C, Christakou A, Chudasama Y, Forni C & Robbins, TW (2004) Effects of subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation on attentional performance in the rat. Society for Neuroscience, October 2004, San Diego, USA

Christakou A, Robbins TW & Everitt BJ (2001) Persistent attentional output neglect produced by unilateral disruption of a medial prefrontal-dorsal striatal circuit. Society for Neuroscience, November 2001, San Diego, USA

Christakou A, Robbins TW & Everitt BJ (2001) Attentional neglect syndrome following unilateral disruption of prefrontal cortico‑striatal system. Behavioural Pharmacology 12(S1): 20. First joint meeting of the European Brain and Behaviour Society and the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society, September 2001, Marseille, France

Christakou A, Robbins TW & Everitt BJ (2000) Functional dissociation of medial frontal and anterior cingulate cortico‑striatal circuits based on performance on a visuo-spatial attention task in the rat. European Journal of Neuroscience, 12 (S): 503. Federation of European Neuroscience Societies, June 2000, Brighton, UK

Christakou A, Robbins TW & Everitt BJ (2000) Functional disconnection of medial prefrontal cortex and medial caudate-putamen: Effects on performance on a visual attention task in the rat. “The Frontal Lobes”, 10th Annual Rotman Research Institute Conference, March 2000, Toronto, Canada

Christakou A, Rogers RD, Robbins TW & Everitt BJ (1999) Disconnection of medial prefrontal cortex and medial caudate-putamen in the rat: Effects on performance in a 5-choice, serial reaction-time task. Society for Neuroscience, October 1999, Miami, USA

Christakou A, Robbins TW & Everitt BJ (1999) Disconnection of medial prefrontal cortex and medial caudate-putamen in the rat: effects on performance on a multiple choice, serial reaction-time task. British Neuroscience Association, April 1999, Harrogate, UK



[ d o c t o r a l   t h e s i s ]

Christakou A (2001) Prefrontal cortico-striatal systems underlying executive attention. University of Cambridge